Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) était un psychologue américain dont les travaux étaient axés sur l'étude de l'apprentissage et du comportement des animaux. Thorndike's law of exercise has two parts; the law of use and the law of disuse. [12] Eventually, the cats would step on the switch on the floor by chance, and the door would open. 8. [25] Planned ignoring is used to decrease, weaken, or eliminate the occurrence of a target behavior. [11] Thorndike's research drove comparative psychology for fifty years, and influenced countless psychologists over that period of time, and even still today. Soon a colony had formed there with him as its 'tribal' chief. Worth, NY. Behavior that cannot be explained by a simpler phenomenon, such as conditioning, follows connectionist principles. Prof. Edward L. Thorndike. An animal will try multiple responses if the first response does not lead to a specific state of affairs. [29] Indeed, Watson himself overtly critiqued the idea of maternal instincts in humans in a report of his observations of first-time mothers struggling to breastfeed. Born on 31st August 1874 in Massachusetts, United States he worked on animal behavior. 2nd ed. at Harvard University in 1897. He [9] He placed a great emphasis on consequences of behavior as setting the foundation for what is and is not learned. He received his undergraduate degree from Wesleyan University and began his graduate work at Harvard. Similarly, Thorndike's connectionism states that behavior is a product of the connection of numerous neural and psychological processes. For example, along with the "nursing instinct," Thorndike talked about the instinct of "submission to mastery," writing: "Women in general are thus by original nature submissive to men in general. Jonçich's The Sane Positivist: A Biography of Edward L. Thorndike (1968) is a biographical history of Thorndike's life, times, and work. ; Hendrickson, J.M. Further Reading on Edward Lee Thorndike. Like many other psychologists of his time, Thorndike's interest in psychology grew after reading the classic book The Principles of Psychology by William James. The first being abstract intelligence. This time, the cat was able to hit the lever quickly and succeeded in getting out from the box. [31], Thorndike's beliefs about inborn differences between the thoughts and behavior of men and women included misogynist, pseudo-scientific arguments about the role of women in society. [25], Unlike later behaviorists such as John Watson, who placed a very strong emphasis on the impact of environmental influences on behavior,[26] Thorndike believed that differences in the parental behavior of men and women were due to biological, rather than cultural, reasons. The puzzle box experiments were motivated in part by Thorndike's dislike for statements that animals made use of extraordinary faculties such as insight in their problem solving: "In the first place, most of the books do not give us a psychology, but rather a eulogy of animals. [6] Edward's thesis is sometimes thought of as the essential document of modern comparative psychology. [9] Thorndike saw the same results with other animals, and he observed that there was no improvement even when he placed the animals’ paws on the correct levers, buttons, or bar. Reinforcement theory and behavior analysis. Edward Thorndike : biography August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949 Development of law of effect Thorndike’s research focused on instrumental learning, which means that learning is developed from the organism doing something. Thorndike opposed the idea that learning should reflect nature, which was the main thought of developmental scientists at that time. All rights reserved. The learning curve also suggested that different species learned in the same way but at different speeds. [5] Thorndike graduated from The Roxbury Latin School (1891), in West Roxbury, Massachusetts and from Wesleyan University (B.S. The younger, Lynn, was a medievalist specializing in the history of science and magic, while the older, Ashley, was an English professor and noted authority on Shakespeare. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/edward-thorndike-8732.php The cats used various methods trying to get out, however it does […] [12] To see if the cats could learn through observation, he had them observe other animals escaping from the box. For example, he placed a cat inside a wooden box. With the realization that some soldiers could not read well enough to complete the Alpha test, the Beta test (consisting of pictures and diagrams) was administered. [9] Thorndike's work would eventually be a major influence to B.F. Skinner and Clark Hull. Tomlinson, S. (1997). [7], During the early stages of his career, he purchased a wide tract of land on the Hudson and encouraged other researchers to settle around him. [22], Thorndike's Law of Effect states that "responses that produce a desired effect are more likely to occur again whereas responses that produce an unpleasant effect are less likely to occur again". [12] He would then compare the times of those who got to observe others escaping with those who did not, and he found that there was no difference in their rate of learning. Through his contributions to the behavioral psychology field came his major impacts on education, where the law of effect has great influence in the classroom.


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